Historic windows have usually acquired many layers of paint over time. In this case, the old original peg was made out of Locust wood. Repair and refinishing of the frame may proceed concurrently with repairs to the sash, taking advantage of the curing times for the paints and putty used on the sash. However, our … Consider energy efficiency as one of the factors for replacements, but do not let it dominate the issue. Many repairs of historic windows need only: 5 Adobe Buildings With the stop removed, the lower or interior sash may be withdrawn. They were simply made with new wood lapped onto old wood as shown here, fastened with two wood screws and no adhesive. Three techniques for repairing partially decayed or weathered wood are discussed in this section, and all three can be accomplished using products available at most hardware stores. The sash makers knew that the joints needed to flex and move a bit for long-term durability. The techniques can be applied by an unskilled person with minimal training and experience. Step 9. Morrison, Hugh. To order hard copies of the Briefs, see Printed Publications. The lead paste was used to keep water out of the joint and prevent decay. 33 Stained and Leaded Glass It is important to protect the glass because it may be historic and often adds character to the window. "Sealing Leaky Windows." On this project we had guidelines from the Shakers to do effective low-cost repairs that respected the historic character and cultural significance of these windows. Assemble the repaired stile onto the sash and peg it in place. (www.SaveAmericasWindows.com), The Preservation Trades Network can provide a list of its members if you join. 45 Wooden Porches Brownstone Doors specializes in expertly crafted reproduction of historic doors, entryways and storefronts. While working on the windows we could see they were entirely hand crafted, not factory made products. Follow through with effective supervision to assure the work matches the samples. Spaces by each part allow notes on existing conditions and repair instructions. It’s true, the power tools could step up the production rate if there are dozens of dutchmen to do at the same time, but here I used hand work because it is more controlled and less likely to damage the original wood. Download the PDF The windows on many historic buildings are an important aspect of the architectural character of those buildings. Wood is frequently in sound physical condition beneath unsightly paint. Armed with an awareness of the significance of the existing window, begin to search for a replacement which retains as much of the character of the historic window as possible. Arched top storms are available for windows with special shapes. Repair or replace historic windows? Write dozens of pages of specs. Only light clamping pressure is needed with this epoxy adhesive system. 12 Structural Glass 20 Barns Felt may be fastened to the top, bottom, and meeting rails, but may have the disadvantage of absorbing and holding moisture, particularly at the bottom rail. The window sash repair described here was part of a larger window preservation and barn repair project at the historic Sabbathday Lake Shaker Village in New Gloucester, ME. However, the facts are something else. Summary and References 9. There are several safe and effective techniques for removing paint from wood, depending on the amount of paint to be removed. 28 Painting Interiors Old House Journal (no. Welcome to Mozer Works, Inc. We’re a full time historic restoration company that exclusively specializes in restoring old windows and entrance doors. are examples of exceptional craftsmanship or design. Physical Evaluation 3. The operations just discussed summarize the efforts necessary to restore a window with minor deterioration to "like new" condition. Some degree of paint removal is also necessary as a first step in the proper surface preparation for subsequent refinishing (if paint color analysis is desired, it should be conducted prior to the onset of the paint removal). After the proper curing times have elapsed for paint and putty, the sash will be ready for reinstallation. rather than replacing them is not only more . New York: Oxford University Press, 1952. Once the evaluation of the windows is completed and the scope of the work is known, there may be a potential economy of scale. Each individual piece can be repaired, restored, or replaced quite simply by the homeowner or local tradesman. It presents a methodology for approaching the evaluation and repair of existing windows, and considerations for replacement, from which the professional can develop alternatives and specify appropriate materials and procedures. Photo: NPS files.  Windows are an authentic part of a building - they are a character-defining feature. Dutchman LayoutThe dutchman will lap onto adjacent sound wood. Assess Conditions (see top image) During the window conditions assessment, I noted this broken joint between the meeting rail and the stile of the upper sash and scheduled the sash to be pulled and taken to the shop for repair. 43 Historic Structure Reports Some of the web versions of the Preservation Briefs differ somewhat from the printed versions. 31 Mothballing A wide variety of products are available to assist in this task. In this case I decided to use the traditional wood dutchman method because of the historic nature of the sash. Wood may also be strengthened and stabilized by consolidation, using semirigid epoxies which saturate the porous decayed wood and then harden. And you may even get a known result. According to ASHRAE 1977 Fundamentals, the U-values for single glazed wooden windows range from 0.88 to 0.99. After fungicidal and preservative treatment the windows may be stabilized, retained, and restored with every expectation for a long service life. Photo: NPS files. This illustrates a two-part expoxy patching compound used to fill the surface of a weathered sill and rebuild the missing edge. 19 Wooden Shingle Roofs Home / How To Advice / Windows / Historic Wood Windows / Repairing wood windows. A graphic or photographic system may be devised to record existing conditions and illustrate the scope of any necessary repairs. Replacing old wood screens A few tricks and some advice on making new wooden window screens; Repairing wood windows Our old windows had broken glass and crumbling putty. Costs: This repair using the dutchman method took 1.1 hours (66 minutes) and used $1.90 in materials. Repair of Historic Windows Replacement of historic wooden windows has become a thriving industry. More information on epoxies can be found in the publication "Epoxies for Wood Repairs in Historic Buildings," cited in the bibliography. Bad repair works can be difficult and expensive to undo. if removal is necessary, thoroughly investigate the structural detailing and seek appropriate professional consultation. Windows are frequently important visual focal points, especially on simple facades such as this mill building. Learn More. The cost to repair each window drops dramatically once a glass professional is already on-site. The upper sash can be removed in the same manner as the lower one and both sash taken to a convenient work area (in order to remove the sash the interior stop and parting bead need only be removed from one side of the window). Preservation: Present Pathway to Fall River's Future. General Contracting of Historic Barn Restorations, Farmhouse restoration, Drone inspections with professional review of historic building, Metal flashings replacement, Old farmhouse wooden sash window repairs and replacement of windows frames, Old stone house inspections , Church Bell Tower Restoration and Repair, Interior Church Repairs cleaning of soot from incense and candles, Basement … Each window should be examined for operational soundness beginning with the lower portions of the frame and sash. 9 Wooden Windows When using any technique of building up or patching a flat surface, the finished surface should be sloped slightly to carry water away from the window and not allow it to puddle. 46 Gas Stations The weight pocket is frequently accessible through a door on the face of the frame near the sill, but if no door exists, the trim on the interior face may be removed for access. The sash can be refinished as desired on the inside and painted on the outside as soon as a "skin" has formed on the putty, usually in 2 or 3 days. (ptn.org), The Window Preservation Standards book offers guidance in organizing window projects and provides a set of detailed standard methods and procedures. This technique is especially useful for checking sills where visual access to the underside is restricted. Evaluating the architectural or historical significance of windows is the first step in planning for window treatments, and a general understanding of the function and history of windows is vital to making a proper evaluation. Step. Many styles of storm windows are available to improve the thermal performance of existing windows. The staff member found that the frame could be stripped of paint and the sash removed quite easily. Removal of excess layers or peeling and flaking paint will facilitate operation of the window and restore the clarity of the original detailing. After removing any paint along the seam, the parting bead should be carefully pried out and worked free in the same manner as the interior stop. Even for projects requiring repairs identified in this section, if the percentage of parts replacement per window is low, or the number of windows requiring repair is small, repair can still be a cost effective solution. Window Replacement 8. 37 Lead-Paint Hazards The windows on many historic buildings are an important aspect of the architectural character of those buildings. 36 Cultural Landscapes Shape the SocketI saw the end of the socket with a fine toothed crosscut saw and flatten the bed of the socket with a chisel. If deterioration has begun from the hidden side of a member and the core is badly decayed, the visible surface may appear to be sound wood. 18 Rehabilitating Interiors Regardless of the actual costs, or who performs the work, the evaluation process described earlier will provide the knowledge from which to specify an appropriate work program, establish the work element priorities, and identify the level of skill needed by the labor force. Whole Part Renewal: Remove the broken stile from the sash. Exterior rainwater and interior condensation can flow downward along the window, entering and collecting at points where the flow is blocked. 44 Awnings Eldon Lindamood worked along with me as an intern craftsman. Plan the RepairHere the sash has been deglazed (glass pane removed) and the heavy paint buildup has been removed so I can get a clear view of the damage. 42 Cast Stone (WindowStandards.org). Much of the technical section presents repair techniques as an instructional guide for the do-it-yourselfer. Some woodworking mills do not like to repair old sash because nails or other foreign objects in the sash can damage expensive knives (which cost far more than their profits on small repair jobs); others do not have cutting knives to duplicate muntin profiles. New York: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-conditioning Engineers, 1978 (chapter 26). They are … This repair could be done without disassembling the sash. Their size, placement, proportional relationship to the wall space, style, material, how light … If a rehabilitation project has a large number of windows such as a commercial building or an industrial complex, there may be less of a problem arriving at a solution. 22 Stucco The back putty on the interior side of the pane should also be inspected, because it creates a seal which prevents condensation from running down into the joinery. 34 Composition Ornament So, I consider these more modern methods to have a proven service life measured in decades. Reading List 10. Learn basic preservation and documentation issues facing owners of buildings with leaded glass while also learning about common causes of deterioration and presents repair, restoration, and … One of the most common work items is the replacement of the sash cords with new rope cords or with chains. In fact, a historic wooden window with a high quality storm window added should thermally outperform a new double-glazed metal window which does not have thermal breaks (insulation between the inner and outer frames intended to break the path of heat flow). The process has been widely used and proven in marine applications; and proprietary products are available at hardware and marine supply stores. The final glazing compound or putty is applied and beveled to complete the seal. Over the decades I have personally seen this attempted as a tradesman, a contractor, a specifier, a consultant, and a building owner. They can contribute to significance through their design, materials and workmanship. Text: Kendall Holmes Photos: Deb Holmes. Traditionally glue was not used in sash joints. Defects in Sash Windows c. Repairing Sash Windows d. Yorkshire Sliders e. Casements f. Glazing 6.2 Doors 7.0 INTERIORS 7.1 Staircases 7.2 Plaster 7.3 Floors 7.4 Timber Floors 8.0 FURTHER READING _____ PAGE 4 HOW TO REPAIR HISTORIC BUILDINGS So, by simply opting to repair a window instead of buying a replacement, you're already saving money. Hardened putty in the rabbets may be softened by heating with a soldering iron at the point of removal. Check building supply firms, local woodworking mills, carpenters, preservation oriented magazines, or catalogs or suppliers of old building materials, for product information. When such a schedule is completed, it indicates the precise tasks to be performed in the repair of each unit and becomes a part of the specifications. Pieces can be repaired or replaced, and then reassembled. Window openings can be covered with polyethylene sheets or plywood sheathing while the sash are out for repair. Chapters focus on window problems, … They can easily be taken apart to insert new rails or muntins (cross pieces separating the panes). Step 4: A square and bevel are used to layout the dutchman on the stile. The sill should be examined to insure that it slopes downward away from the building and allows water to drain off. The techniques require more skill and are more expensive than any of the previously discussed alternatives. The emphasis is on craftspeople earning a living by doing best work, providing for the needs of the occupants and the building owner, while sustaining local economies.” – “National Window Preservation Standards,” 2013, page 6. While I used modern epoxy materials on this repair, I have seen century-old sash dutchmen repairs still performing admirably. Sound wood will separate in long fibrous splinters, but decayed wood will lift up in short irregular pieces due to the breakdown of fiber strength. Unlike replacement windows where the whole window unit must often be replaced or factory repaired if an issue arises, historic windows can be repaired piecemeal. First, select the skilled, knowledgeable creative craftsperson who knows how to use basic materials to provide known and proven results. The use of sash locks installed on the meeting rail will insure that the sash are kept tightly closed so that the weatherstripping will function more effectively to reduce infiltration. Windows are an important architectural element in old houses. A craftsman uses his skill and knowledge of basic materials, wood and epoxy resin, to create something that did not exist before: an effective repair. Reproducing historic wood windows involves dealing with many design details that don't exist in today's windows. Repairing traditional windows . A little searching should locate a firm which will do the job, and at a reasonable price. 40 Ceramic Tile condition of the sash (rails, stiles and muntins), the overall condition of the window (excellent, fair, poor, and so forth). Although such locks will not always be historically accurate, they will usually be viewed as an acceptable contemporary modification in the interest of improved thermal performance. These mixtures can be built up in successive layers, then sanded, primed, and painted. A whole new stile would have taken 1.5 hours and used $4.00 in materials. Even though we’re repairing a historic home with like-kind materials, we can use a mixture of old and modern building practices to create a quality end result that will stand the test of time. While it may be expensive for the average historic home owner to pay seventy dollars or more for a mill to grind a custom knife to duplicate four or five bad muntins, that cost becomes negligible on large commercial projects which may have several hundred windows. It will then be much easier to remove the stop, the parting bead and the sash. 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